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11.07.2019

Ghostwriting Medical Literature

What’s in a Name? Ghostly Spirits Stalk the Medical Literature


By  on November 6, 2019

ghostwriting medical literature


The idea sounded fishy to Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman. She was not about to put her name on a ghostwritten article for a medical journal. But she was curious, so she played along for a while.
An associate professor at Georgetown University Medical Center, Fugh-Berman was contacted in 2004 by a medical communications firm working for drug maker AstraZeneca with a proposition: Would she like an author credit on a forthcoming article to be submitted to a journal? A few weeks later, Fugh-Berman said, she received a manuscript of nearly 2,500 words, complete with an abstract, footnotes and a table. An accompanying note asked her to return the draft with any changes within a week.
The paper was about the risks of warfarin, a generic anti-clotting drug, for people also taking herbal supplements. AstraZeneca was developing a rival drug that would supposedly be safer for supplement users. A positive article could give the new drug a promotional lift. Fugh-Berman was considered an expert on drug-supplement interactions, so her byline would carry some weight. But long concerned about overprescribing in medicine, she turned out to be the wrong person to ask.
Fugh-Berman declined the author credit, and that might have been the end of it. But a few months later, editors of a major journal asked Fugh-Berman to peer review an article they were considering for publication. She quickly recognized it as nearly the same as the draft offered to her, though with a different author’s name.
4GhWriteAdrianeFughBerman
Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman, professor at Georgetown University Medical Center and director of PharmedOut, which  examines marketing practices of drug and medical device makers.
Alerted by Fugh-Berman, editors of the Journal of General Internal Medicine rejected the article. They then published her account of the episode, along with an editorial condemning what they called “an egregious case of unethical behavior” that aimed to inject ”bias and untruth into the scientific dialogue in order to enhance corporate profits.”
AstraZeneca and the medical writing contractor, Rx Communications, were not immediately fingered as the culprits. On advice from its lawyers, the journal identified the drug maker as “ABC Drugs” and the medical writing firm as “XYZ Communications.” As Dr. William M. Tierney, then the co-editor, recently told FairWarning: “They had a lot more money to pay lawyers than we do … I didn’t need to publicly shame them” to make the point.
But Fugh-Berman was determined to out the companies. In a piece for The Guardian she did.
Struggling with the fallout, AstraZeneca and Rx Communications denied engaging in ghostwriting, calling the whole thing a clumsy mistake. Rx, they said, had accidentally sent Fugh-Berman a manuscript developed by another academic author.
For the big drug maker, the timing couldn’t have been worse. A short time before, an AstraZeneca executive appearing before a British parliamentary committee asserted that the firm never engaged in ghostwriting.
For Fugh-Berman, now a Georgetown professor, the experience deepened her interest in ghostwriting and the corruption of medical literature. In 2007, she founded a project called PharmedOUT , which aims to educate health care professionals about marketing practices of drug and medical device makers.
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10.16.2019

Alexa Hire a Business Book Ghostwriter

Overview about business book ghostwriters


By JBKlutse.com - May 22, 2019


business book ghostwriter

Alexa hire a business book ghostwriter


Book writing services have changed over the years. With the advent of ghostwriting, book writing is just not the same. People around the world continuously come up with new ingenious ideas. However, not every idea is accepted globally. Book writing services that incorporate ghostwriters are one of those spectacular ideas that have revolutionized the world of book writing. With this service, people from around the world can share their ideas and thoughts with ease. Famous celebrities from all over the world and the giants of the political, business and humanitarian world are able to share their life stories and experiences with people all over the world with the help of book ghostwriters.

What Kinds of People Hire Business Book Ghost Writers?

Many people hire business book ghostwriters, from owners of businesses, college students and the average joe in the street. They may have fantastic stories to tell, but they don’t have an enormous amount of financial capital available to hire any such expensive ghostwriters. I’m sure you already know by now that many big companies obviously hire ghostwriters to do the job of their website. You can hire ghostwriters on an hourly basis or for a flat fee, depending on the scope of the project. Just hire some ghostwriters to do the work of writing for you. One thing to keep in mind is that you don’t know who writes the material you see; many people hire ghostwriters all the time. Another alternative is to hire ghostwriters to produce content specifically for you.

Corporate Style Communications

We live in an era of specialization where large companies are turning to business book ghostwriter for books to create annual reports, leadership pieces, website content, corporate histories and newsletters. A book ghostwriter can also be helpful in writing web content, mission statements and other corporate documents. The writers are able to spruce up documents that will make the executives look better. A must for leaders of major corporations and other organizations is contacting through social media. This helps people to develop a rich online presence. The people who are behind the brands do not usually have the time to update their social accounts. They will employ a book ghostwriter who is digitally perceptive to provide content and curate accounts.

Terms of Contract

The book ghostwriter behind the project will not receive any kind of recognition, with the possible exception of a mere thank you in the section of the book-marked acknowledgements. Typically, they will sign either a confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement. Sometimes writers receive public credit on the cover of the book as a co-writer. For speeches and other types of content, these writers can be invisible and not acknowledged. Either way, the terms are set into place before the project begins. That way everyone involved in the project is aware of all of the stipulations of what is required for the writing job.
CLICK HERE for the rest of this splendid article
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10.03.2019

Alexa find a fiction ghostwriter

Fiction Ghostwriting Is Bigger Than Ever



Adam Rowe - Contributor 
Media

I write about the future of books and the business of storytelling.


fiction ghostwriting
    Gotham Ghostwriting has a network of more than 2,000
    editorial and publishing specialists. GETTY


Ghostwriting agency Gotham Ghostwriters recently launched a new arm dedicated solely to ghostwriting creative fiction. Why? Because its fiction clients are on the rise. And instead of the corporations that used to solicite ghostwritten fiction, the new clients are often individuals with a dream for publishing a novel – and possibly launching a multimedia franchise along with it.

“I’ve been ghosting fiction for 15 years now, so I think the demand has always been there to some extent,” says Dr. Jennifer Banash, a New York Times-bestselling ghostwriter and director of the Creative Writing group.

“What I think has changed is that the practice has shifted from being the brain child of publishing houses or packaging companies, who routinely farm out successful series’ on the down low, to everyday people who have either harbored dreams of making it big in the publishing world, or who just want to simply get their story out there.” 

Today In: Business


So what’s driving the average joe’s dreams? This shift could be driven by the disruptive technology that powers our social media-reliant world, according to Dan Gerstein, founder and CEO of Gotham Ghostwriters.

“My theory is that it is largely driven by the ongoing democratizing of storytelling and publishing,” Gerstein tells me. “First off, social media has made everyone with a Twitter or Facebook account an author and a publisher, and the instant validation people get for the stories they put out to the world is a potent force in encouraging people to want to share their stories to a wider universe. Second, the explosion of self-publishing options and the rise of disruptive platforms like Wattpad has largely decimated the barriers to entry for a class of authors who could never get published before. These folks look at the amazing success stories of Fifty Grey Shades of Grey and The Martian — both of them self-published — and they understandably say, ‘why not me?’”

“Fiction clients are generally most interested in simply getting their story told,” Dr. Banash says. “Most often they’ve dreamed of writing a book or being published for years, but don’t have the necessary skills to get them across the finish line. They’re dreamers—and it’s part of our job to make those dreams of holding their own book in their hands a reality. And in our current technological culture where everything is available at any time, this attitude has begun to extend to books as well. Have a great idea for a novel (and literally everyone these days has one) but don’t know how to conceptualize it? Or write it? Well, that’s where we come in.”

Franchise ambitions are on the rise


I’ve written before on why books are the quickest way convert a good idea into a copyrightable format. They’re a great way to beta-test a new IP that might turn into a multimedia franchise if it’s popular enough. “The book is the foundational anchor for movies, TV properties, even video games,” as Gerstein puts it.

Gotham’s fiction clients seem to agree. Gerstein says they tend to break down into two different categories: “The first group come to us major ambitions — they want to publish the next Divergent or Dark Materials and do whatever they can to get a movie deal. The second group comes to us with much more modest aims — they have a story burning inside of them and they just want to get it out into the world.”

CLICK HERE FOR THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE

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9.29.2019

Hip Hop’s Influence on Ghostwriting in the Black Community

Just Keeping it Real: Chronicles of Harriet Blog

A wonderful piece from October of 2014 > Not s--t but wit:


“It’s a travesty,” legendary MC, Grandmaster Caz (aka Casanova Fly) says. “…no way you can even stand in the same room as an MC if you don’t write your rhyme, plain and simple.”

Ghostwriting is a great way for an expert with a book idea and no writing skills to get their expertise out there. The demand is high enough that you can make a good living.
A common relationship in the content marketing and book publishing community is busy CEOs and executives – probably poor writers to begin with – hiring writers to write in their name.
Here’s Rand Fishkin, CEO of MOZ, on ghostwriting:
“…If you’re a great communicator through non-written means and you need help to put your ideas into written language, then by all means, use a ghostwriter if you can find one with the talent to properly convey your message, and your brand.”
Not all ghostwriting is the same. Here are three common varieties:
  • Their ideas and words: In this scenario, someone pays you to turn their ideas into an article or book. You listen to them talk or take their notes and develop that into content. Or they email you a rough draft. It’s your job to clean up that rough draft.
  • Their ideas, your words: In this scenario, someone pays you to write from an outline or transcript they’ve given you. You do all the research, they approve the final draft. Or they might make substantial changes.
  • Your ideas and words: Here, someone pays you to come up with the ideas yourself, create the outlines, and write the book or articles. Their only involvement is to approve your work. This would include social ghostwriters – authors who write for celebrities who hire them to run their Twitter accounts, for instance.
There is a fierce level of pride in being a ghostwriter. Yet for most, this pride is rooted in a desire to convince people what we do is not shady. It’s a sort of pride that encourages other members to resist shame.
The concern is: what would happen if your client’s readers discovered he or she did not write the blog posts or book they said they did? Would that tarnish their reputation?
Perhaps.
When Guy Kawasaki admitted he used ghostwriters for his Twitter account, people shrugged and kept pushing forward. Business as usual.
However, when it was even hinted that Sister Souljah’s sequel to The Coldest Winter Ever, A Deeper Love Inside, was penned by a ghostwriter, people were up in arms.
Even those in defense of her speak about ghostwriting as if it is some shameful act.
Alwyn K. Wilson, author and founder of Diamond Publicationz, had this to say: My favorite writer Sister Souljah has become the latest person accused of having a ghostwriter for her newest work, the sequel to The Coldest Winter Ever. That novel came on the scene damn near 15 years ago. I instantly fell in love with the street lit novel and it still resonates as my fav. Now blogs and websites are claiming Sister Souljah used a ghostwriter for the sequel A Deeper Love Inside: the Porsche Santiago Story because the style of the writing is drastically different. Look, writers’ styles change. That shows their growth in their talent.”
He goes on to say “…she has improved but I don’t think it is so drastic that I would accuse her of having a ghostwriter; I don’t know her personally but I don’t think that is her style. Why are we as blacks a hell of a lot more critical with each other than any other race? We love knocking each other down when it is unnecessary. But what do I know right? Ms. Souljah, keep doing your thang sistah! You are my inspiration!”
The fact that people jumped on Sister Souljah for apparently having a ghostwriter and that a fan and fellow author felt the need to defend her and try to prove Sister Souljah wouldn’t do something so ‘drastic’, shows that many in the Black community see putting your name on someone else’s work…work you paid for…as a shameful act.
Why?
It is due to the influence of Hip Hop on Black Culture and how we view ethics.

Click here to contact ghostwriter at Ghost Writer, Inc.

5.28.2019

Hire a Business Book Ghostwriter

Business book ghostwriters


business book ghostwriters


Book writing services have changed over the years. With the advent of ghostwriting, book writing is just not the same. People around the world continuously come up with new ingenious ideas. However, not every idea is accepted globally. Book writing services that incorporate ghostwriters are one of those spectacular ideas that have revolutionized the world of book writing. With this service, people from around the world can share their ideas and thoughts with ease. Famous celebrities from all over the world and the giants of the political, business and humanitarian world are able to share their life stories and experiences with people all over the world with the help of book ghostwriters.

What Kinds of People Hire Business Book Ghost Writers?

Many people hire business book ghostwriters, from owners of businesses, college students and the average joe in the street. They may have fantastic stories to tell, but they don’t have an enormous amount of financial capital available to hire any such expensive ghostwriters. I’m sure you already know by now that many big companies obviously hire ghostwriters to do the job of their website. You can hire ghostwriters on an hourly basis or for a flat fee, depending on the scope of the project. Just hire some ghostwriters to do the work of writing for you. One thing to keep in mind is that you don’t know who writes the material you see; many people hire ghostwriters all the time. Another alternative is to hire ghostwriters to produce content specifically for you.

Corporate Style Communications

We live in an era of specialization where large companies are turning to business book ghostwriter for books to create annual reports, leadership pieces, website content, corporate histories and newsletters. A book ghostwriter can also be helpful in writing web content, mission statements and other corporate documents. The writers are able to spruce up documents that will make the executives look better. A must for leaders of major corporations and other organizations is contacting through social media. This helps people to develop a rich online presence. The people who are behind the brands do not usually have the time to update their social accounts. They will employ a book ghostwriter who is digitally perceptive to provide content and curate accounts.

Terms of Contract

The book ghostwriter behind the project will not receive any kind of recognition, with the possible exception of a mere thank you in the section of the book-marked acknowledgements. Typically, they will sign either a confidentiality or non-disclosure agreement. Sometimes writers receive public credit on the cover of the book as a co-writer. For speeches and other types of content, these writers can be invisible and not acknowledged. Either way, the terms are set into place before the project begins. That way everyone involved in the project is aware of all of the stipulations of what is required for the writing job.
CLICK HERE TO READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE

Click here to contact ghostwriter at Ghost Writer, Inc.

5.03.2019

CEO Ghostwriting

Ghostwriting for the CEO: Not as Spooky as It Sounds

Mary Clare Novak  |  May 3, 2019


ghostwriting for ceos

Do you ever stop and think about how famous athletes, politicians, and musicians have the time to write an entire book about their life while working tirelessly at their full-time job?

Save yourself some time: they don’t.
It is not uncommon for influential people from all professions to hire a skillful writer to compose materials for them. It might sound a little unethical, but as long as the author has good intentions, the writer is compensated, and the readers get what they are expecting, it is fair and legal. The proper term for this action in leadership communication is ghostwriting.
More people use ghostwriting than you think. Barack Obama, William Shakespeare, and Kanye West have all hired ghostwriters to produce materials for them.
The same goes for the CEO of your business. As a person of power, your CEO has a lot of valuable information with little time to share it.
That, or they aren’t the best writer.
A good CEO will recognize this and outsource their communicative tasks to a ghostwriter.
If you have the time and skill, they might pick you. Nervous? Don’t worry. We’ve put together a guide for the process of ghostwriting for your CEO, along with some skills you’ll need to create the expected materials.

Ghostwriting for your CEO

The ghostwriting process is a bit different from other forms of writing. While most writing includes the author becoming an expert in a topic, ghostwriting requires you to create a relationship and become an expert on a person to speak on their behalf.
Here are the four steps to get you there:
CLICK TO READ THE REST OF THIS HIGHLY INFORMATIVE ARTICLE
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4.24.2019

Ghostwriting Clients

How Often Should You Follow Up with Potential Ghostwriting Clients?

Association of Ghostwriters
April 24, 2019

ghostwriting clients

Many ghostwriters aren’t sure exactly what to do after a promising phone discussion or email exchange with a ghostwriting client.
Should they send an email expressing thanks for the prospect’s time? Would mailing a handwritten note be more effective to keep them in the running for the work? Should they check back by phone after a few days? What’s the best approach?
There seems to be a lot of anxiety and doubt about the ideal follow-up process. Probably, because the frequency and timing of follow-up message varies by writer and by client.
However, in general, I would recommend following up at least three times.
First Follow Up
Within 24 hours of a phone discussion, video conference, or in-person meeting with a prospective client, you should send a note of thanks. It’s considered common courtesy, though today so few people send thank you notes that, if for no other reason, you should do this to set yourself apart.
If you had a phone call or video chat, a short email the next day reiterating your interest in the work, restating why you’re intrigued, throwing in an idea you may have had about the project, and saying that you’ll check in next week (unless the prospect has shared their timeline for a decision already) is a smart idea.
If you met in person, a handwritten note mailed to their office or home is a nice touch. Take two minutes to drop it in the mail.
CLICK HERE to read the rest of this informative article.


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4.12.2019

A Ghostwriter's Career

What It's Like To Ghostwrite Books


What it's Like to Ghostwrite Books


By  on Bustle

started my ghostwriting career as a favor to a family friend — the kind of favor that someone does for you, by pretending they need a favor from you. I was months out of graduate school and desperate for a writing gig; he was well-known in our community and wanted help finishing his memoir. Dozens and dozens of pages of notes, thousands of hours, and exactly 21 months later, I had written a book. It was someone else’s book, sure. But from beginning to end, I had arranged and rearranged every single word.

Each book was like a puzzle. Disjointed notes or audio files combined with the particular nuances of each client’s personality to create a story.


Then, as is wont to happen if you finally work up the confidence to say "I’m a writer" when people ask you what you do, it seemed like everyone around me wanted to write a book, or believed they had a book-worthy story to tell, including the woman I babysat for, my fitness instructor, the cashier whose lane I preferred at the grocery store, the guys who came to steam clean the carpeting in my new apartment, a young mom I had become friends with, and the old man who always seemed to be checking his mailbox at the same time I did.

Most of these aspiring memoirists weren’t serious, but one was. Suddenly, I had another gig. This time, I found myself faced with hours upon hours of audio recordings, all of which needed to be transcribed and turned into something resembling literature. Again, somehow, I did it.

Through a referral, I was offered another opportunity to ghostwrite a book, and then another. Each time I wrote faster, cleaner, and better. Each book was like a puzzle. Disjointed notes or audio files combined with the particular nuances of each client’s personality to create a story. All of these stories were published without my name on them.

It’s rare that I experience writers’ block when ghostwriting. Even in the instances when a client has given me practically nothing to go off of — a title, a table of contents, a general picture of who they are and where they come from — I’ve dug in and found a way to produce the material they want. (Once, I even ghost-wrote some material off of nothing more than the synopsis of a client’s favorite movie and their list of all the reasons they like it.)

Meanwhile, my own book — a novel that I’ve had in my head and written piecemeal (very minimal piecemeal) — has been languishing for almost a decade. I’ve been sketching various manifestations of its characters for even longer.

3.20.2019

Legal Issues in Ghostwriting

Ghostwriters in Disguise

Reed Smith LLP

legal issues in ghostwriting
USA March 18 2019


Every time we think about addressing ghostwriting as a recurrent plaintiff-side jury distraction in drug/device product liability litigation, we get earwormed by “Ghost Riders in the Sky.” Whether one prefers the Johnny Cash or Outlaws version of the song – or one of who knows how many other covers of the song (originally written by Stan Jones in 1948), it’s hard to stop thinking about it once you start.

The most inveterate ghostwriters are, of course, lawyers themselves. Gives us a chance (and a fee) and we’ll ghostwrite anything: opinions for judges, reports for expert witnesses (e.g., McClellan v. I-Flow Corp., 710 F. Supp.2d 1092, 1118 (D. Or. 2010)), and (most annoyingly) pleadings for supposedly “pro se” parties. But let a drug/device company provide authorship assistance to a busy doctor or a scientist, and the same plaintiffs’ lawyers who routinely massage (if not outright create) their experts’ opinions start screaming and yelling that something terrible is happening. And yet, there’s no proof (and often not even an allegation) that any of the actual science in the “ghostwritten” article was misstated.

So-called “ghostwriting” is “a fairly common, but little known practice, with a pejorative name would distract the jury and needlessly consume time.” Okuda v. Wyeth, 2012 WL 12337860, at *1 (D. Utah July 24, 2012). Plaintiffs regularly attempt to convince juries that routine “ghostwriting” is something nefarious. Defendants, just as often, try to keep this smoke-and-mirrors type evidence out. We haven’t blogged about this issue before, so we thought we’d take a look at decisions excluding ghostwriting allegations.

Perhaps the most notorious ghostwriting testimony was the inflammatory rhetoric initially admitted in In re Prempro Products Liability Litigation, 554 F. Supp.2d 871, 885 (E.D. Ark. 2008), to support punitive damages. There aren’t many judges – especially MDL judges in bellwether cases – willing to admit they were wrong and reverse a verdict, but this was one. In Prempro “Dr. Parisian testified that the FDA would not be aware of ghostwriting” but “provided no testimony linking FDA regulations and ghostwriting.” Id. at 885. Plaintiffs used these (and other) allegations to bamboozle a jury into awarding punitive damages. Id. at 889, 893, 897 (“Plaintiff asserted that ghostwriting is ‘exactly the type of conduct that necessitates punitive damages.’”) (footnote omitted). Holding that ghostwriting testimony should never have been admitted, the court granted a new trial:

[T]here is no evidence that this practice is inappropriate or that [defendant] supported articles that it knew were false or misrepresented the science. Rather, the articles supported [defendant’s] position on the state of the science. Additionally, there was evidence that ghostwriting was a common practice in the industry.

Id. at 888 (footnotes omitted). On appeal, the Court of Appeals affirmed. In re Prempro Products Liability Litigation, 586 F.3d 547, 571 (8th Cir. 2009) (“we cannot say that the district court abused its discretion”).

END OF EXCERPT - CLICK HERE TO READ THE REST OF THIS ARTICLE

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3.08.2019

Using a Ghostwriter

Choosing to Use a Ghostwriter



using a ghostwriter

By Georgia Simcox

Ghost writing is not a recent phenomenon. A notable example may be Shakespeare. Although no one is sure exactly who wrote the plays published under the name of ‘William Shakespeare’, it has been suggested that Sir Francis Bacon, Edward de Vere, and Christopher Marlowe were worthy candidates for the ghostwriting position.

A ghostwriter is a professional writer, hired to effectively communicate the ideas of the ‘named’ author, if this is not something they can do themselves. Alternatively, a team of ghostwriters can work on one story to ensure the work is complete in a shorter time frame. However, they are often not given credit for their work, as someone else’s name is placed on top of something they have worked hard on.

It is not just books which are ghost written, but also pieces of journalism and many speeches given by politicians. Many political speeches since George Washington have are known to have been written by someone other than the person giving the speech. Barack Obama’s first notable ghost writing partnership was with Jonathan Favreau, who the former president said was like his “mind reader”.

Taupin has written most of John’s songs throughout his career, including ‘Tiny Dancer’, ‘Candle in the Wind’ and ‘Rocket Man’.


Elton John has worked with Bernie Taupin on his music for years, as the two have an open working relationship. Taupin has written most of John’s songs throughout his career, including ‘Tiny Dancer’, ‘Candle in the Wind’ and ‘Rocket Man’.

Some may argue that the practice of ghost writing is unethical. After all, it means taking someone else’s work and putting your own name on it. But can we really argue that such a practice is unethical when it has been working under the surface for centuries? Two people engage in a contractual agreement to work in such a way, and if they agree to have someone else’s name on their work, how unethical really is it? The ghostwriter is performing a service, just as a tailor would when altering your suit.

Returning to the literary world, author V.C. Andrews was well known for her young adult fiction with family themes. Before passing away at 63 from breast cancer, she hired Andrew Neiderman to continue the series under her name, allowing her work to continue being published posthumously under a ghostwriter.


It is important to note, however, that not all celebrities use a ghostwriter.


It comes as no surprise that many celebrities choose to use ghost writers for their work, whether it is fiction or autobiographical. They have a story to tell and a name to sell it. The professional writing of a ghostwriter will ensure the celebrity’s ideas are well-written and that the novel receives a good reception. If you look at a lot of celebrity autobiographies – take those of Robbie Williams, Katie Price and Victoria Beckham for example – you will see that they have been either completely written by or had help from a ghostwriter. It is important to note, however, that not all celebrities use a ghostwriter.

Celebrity ghostwriter Pauleanna Reid said that something she likes most about her job is the variety. She said: “The thing is, not everyone is a writer. There are people who are obviously extremely smart, but struggle to translate their thoughts onto paper. That’s where working with a ghost writer can help, to develop a person’s voice and help communicate it clearly.”

Celebrity fans seem to react negatively towards the news that their favourite celebrity hired a ghostwriter to write their novel or autobiography. However, the celebrity isn’t a professional writer, so can they really expect them to write it themselves?


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2.25.2019

Academic ghostwriting in Turkey

Turkey: The big business of academic ghostwriting

From DW.com

academic ghostwriting Turkey

In Turkey, many students are using ghostwriting services to write final papers and dissertations. DW takes a look at what has become a booming business.


Turkish universities are facing a new, not very academic challenge: ghostwriting. From bachelor's and master's theses to doctor's dissertations — almost any form of written academic paper can now be ordered, for a price, from specialized companies.
Particularly at private universities, there is a veritable boom in such ghostwriting. Turkey has 63 private universities, most of them established within the past five years.
A short search on online academic forums found that some 50 companies are operating on this ghostwriter market. They ask for the equivalent of between €500 and €3,000 ($567 and $3,400) per paper. That tots up to revenue of more than €25 million per year.

Private universities to blame?

According to Gorkem Dogan, the chairman of Egitim Sen, a union for those working in education and academia, this significant rise in the number of ghostwritten dissertations has been caused solely by the uncontrolled increase in the number of private universities.
Dogan recalled the fact that many university teachers lost their jobs when a state of emergency was imposed following the failed coup of June 2016. Many more than 100,000 public service employees were formally suspended from their jobs, while more than 6,000 academics were made unemployed just by a special decree from President Erdogan.
"It may be hard to prove whether the suspension of these academics caused the marked increase in ghostwriters or not. But it is a fact that the suspensions were another real blow to Turkey's already shaken academic sphere," Dogan said.

The main users: Medical students

A DW reporter pretending to be a student writing his master's thesis asked a representative of a ghostwriting company about the going prices.
The employee said that he himself was an academic. "I am also on the examination board for both the doctoral viva and the thesis defense," he said. "I write any academic paper for 7,000 Turkish liras (€1,200)."
It became clear during the discussion that the company has specialized in medicine, clinical psychology and management. "About 70 percent of the students we cater to are from medical faculties. When we write a paper for them, we make use of the know-how of surgical or orthopedic specialists, for example. The experts we work with receive a monthly fee of €800 to €1,200 from us. Our prices for medical papers start at €1,700," the company representative said.
He said that these academic papers were invoiced. "It is not illegal, but perhaps somewhat unethical," he said. When asked whether there were problems with the examination board, he answered: "I am a member of the board myself and mostly take on the role of the person asking critical questions. What is more, the board includes friends of the advising professor. One will speak out against the paper; the other will praise it in the highest terms. And the third is there to tie up the deal."

No legal penalties

In Turkey, ghostwriting is not subject to any legal penalties. Agencies and companies that write academic papers for money operate under the name of "academic consultants." The fee received is booked under "office work."
If, however, a university does find out that a paper has not been written by a student his or herself but by a third person, the student can expect to be suspended. She or he will also be asked to rework the paper.
Back in December 2016, the Turkish higher education council, YOK, proposed making academic ghostwriting punishable by fines. The council considers such activities as plagiarism. It said that if a university teacher were discovered to have been the author of a student's paper, she or he should face exclusion from the university, which is tantamount to a dismissal. But these proposals remained just proposals.
Turkey ghostwriting academic papers
Ghostwritten papers are less likely at established universities like the Bogazici University in Istanbul.


Difficulty finding evidence

The private universities in the Istanbul districts of Uskudar and Nisantasi are among the institutes that are often suspected of allowing or encouraging ghostwriting. We confronted Sevil Atasoy, the vice chancellor of the Uskudar University, with the accusations that theses at her institute were being ghostwritten for money. She responded by calling on those making such accusations to present their proof.
Atasoy said that five academic staff were on the committee for a thesis defense, one of whom was from a different university. "Our staff are conscientious and work in a highly professional manner," she said. "For every dissertation that is presented, an evaluation is made as to whether it contains any indications of plagiarism, for example. Our advisers accompany every paper from the first to the last line anyway."
To this day, Atasoy said, there has never been a well-founded accusation regarding ghostwriting.

'Too few tenured professors'

Vahdet Ozkocak, who heads OGESEN, the union of teaching staff, is of a different opinion. He believes that the number of ghostwritten papers has risen significantly. He said there were too few experienced academic staff and tenured professors. According to Ozkocak, the ghostwriters of the dissertations are, however, very experienced, several of them being themselves academics.
He said that YOK had known about this ethical problem for years, but had never taken measures to curb it. Despite talk of a "new higher education council," nothing "new" had ever eventuated, he said. "We can't solve our problems like this. Setting up a ministry for university affairs is urgently necessary," Ozkocak said.
At established state-run universities, passing off ghostwritten papers was difficult, according to Ozkocak, while private universities saw students only as paying customers. He lamented what he called a massive loss of competence at universities over the past 20 years.
"Without recognition, competence and patriotism, the teachers turn to the unethical occupation of ghostwriting," he said.

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